In 1906, the Prairies had a population of 808,863 people. This number had almost doubled in just five years, because in 1901, there had been only 419,512 inhabitants. If you look at the above table you can see just how huge these changes were, particularly for the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta. At the time, the vast majority of people lived in the countryside.
Native people, the first inhabitants
For the longest time, the First Nations people were the only ones to inhabit this vast land. They were few in number, perhaps 33,000 in the early 19th century. The Blackfoot, Prairie Cree, Assiniboine and Sarcee were some of the nations who shared the territory, living mainly by hunting bison.
In the 1870s, the federal government signed treaties with the First Nations livings in the Prairies, so that they could take ownership of Native land and make them available for colonization and the construction of the railway. This is when the First Nations were put on reservations.
Arrival of the first Europeans in the Prairies and the birth of the Métis
It was the fur trade that brought the first Europeans to settle in the Prairies. Once there, they established trading posts and a permanent settlement, the Red River colony. These newcomers were anglophones from Ontario and francophones from Québec. Some of them married Native women and gave rise to the Métis Nation. The most well-known Métis was Louis Riel.
The successful settlement of the Prairies
In 1896, the settlement of the West really took off, thanks to the arrival of huge numbers of immigrants from the United States, Britain and various European countries, like Germany, Russia, Poland and Scandinavia.
What can explain this success? There were several reasons why the settlement of the West increased so rapidly between 1896 and 1914. Here are two: in the western U.S., all the good farmland had already been distributed; the Prairies were therefore considered to be the last good farmlands available. Second, Europe was overcrowded, so there were plenty of people who were leaving for other countries, including Canada.
Author: Service national du Récit de l’univers social
This page is also available in: Français