1749, Pehr Kalm, Swedish naturalist:

“Montréal is Canada’s second-ranking town in terms of grandeur and wealth, and first in terms of its site, which is very beautiful, and its climate, which is mild. […] it is surrounded by fertile fields, beautiful meadows and enchanting woods … It is reasonably well fortified, and surrounded by a thick, high wall. It is protected by the St. Lawrence River from the east, and from all other points by a deep water-filled trench, which defends the inhabitants against any danger of a sudden incursion of enemy troops. However, it could not withstand a long siege, because it requires a strong garrison, due to its size, and because it mostly consists of wooden houses.”


Why was Montréal a fortified town?

Why was Montréal difficult to defend?

Compare the two maps and explain how they are different.



Fortified = protected by fortifications (military defence structure)

Fertile = soil that can yield abundant harvests

Incursion = entry, invasion, attack

Garrison = group of soldiers stationed in a fortified town or structure

French (If available)