Chiefs Definitions:
The leaders of the clans and tribes were called chiefs. These men were elected or chosen by the people [or appointed, see Clan Mother below]. They generally did not have total power, but were respected men who provided advice that the tribe or clan generally followed.

Tribes may have both a civil leader and a war leader. The civil leader guided the tribe during times of peace while the war leader took over during times of war.

Villages and Families Clans were further divided up into villages and families. These groups played a more important role in the daily lives of the people. Large extended families often lived together. Women and Men Women and men had distinctly different roles in both the daily work and in leadership. The chiefs and leaders were generally men, however, this did not mean that the women were powerless. Their opinion was respected and the women usually were the leaders inside the home.

Définitions des chefs :
Les chefs des clans et des tribus étaient appelés chefs. Ces hommes étaient élus ou choisis par le peuple [ou nommés, voir la mère de clan ci-dessous]. Ils n’avaient généralement pas un pouvoir total, mais étaient des hommes respectés qui donnaient des conseils que la tribu ou le clan suivait généralement.

Les tribus peuvent avoir à la fois un chef civil et un chef de guerre. Le chef civil guidait la tribu en temps de paix tandis que le chef de guerre prenait le relais en temps de guerre.

Villages et familles Les clans ont ensuite été divisés en villages et en familles. Ces groupes jouaient un rôle plus important dans la vie quotidienne des gens. Les grandes familles élargies vivaient souvent ensemble. Les femmes et les hommes Les femmes et les hommes avaient des rôles nettement différents dans le travail quotidien et dans le leadership. Les chefs et les dirigeants étaient généralement des hommes, ce qui ne signifiait pas pour autant que les femmes étaient impuissantes. Leur opinion était respectée et les femmes étaient généralement les leaders au sein du foyer.

Source: https://www.ducksters.com/history/native_americans/social_structure.php

Iroquois Clan Mothers
The Iroquois clan mother is responsible for the welfare of the clan. She names all the people of the clan and holds a position in nominating, installing and removing the male chief, the Hoyaneh (“Caretaker of the Peace”). They are considered the life givers.

La mère du clan iroquois est responsable du bien-être du clan. Elle nomme tous les membres du clan et occupe un poste dans la nomination, l’installation et le retrait du chef masculin, le Hoyaneh (“gardien de la paix”). Ils sont considérés comme les donneurs de vie.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clan_Mother

 

Reference: Chief - Chef

Societies & TerritoriesChiefs Definitions: The leaders of the clans and tribes were called chiefs. These men were elected or chosen by the people . They generally did not have total power, but were respected men who provided advice that the tribe or clan generally followed. Tribes may have both a civil leader and...An English Elementary Student History Site

French (If available)